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International Journal of Management and International Business Studies.
ISSN 2277-3177 Volume 4, Number 2 (2014), pp. 213-220
? Research India Publications

Role of Training & Development in an
Organizational Development
Vinesh
Research Scholar, D.N. (PG) College Meerut, CCS University, Meerut
Abstract
Training and development is the field which is concerned with
organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of
Individuals and groups in organizational setting. It is a combined role
often called human resources development (HRD) meaning the
development of "Human" resources to remain competitive in the
marketplace. Training focuses on doing activities today to develop
employees for their current jobs and development is preparing
employees for future roles and responsibilities. It carry out an analysis
that the objective of training and development is to creative learning
organizations which ensure that employees through value addition can
effectively perform their jobs, gains competitive advantage and seek
self growth: this measurable performance resulting from good training
and development, shall enhance organization development. It is a
process transferring information and knowledge to employers. It is
equipping employers to translate that information and knowledge into
practice with a view to enhancing organization effectiveness and
productivity, and the quality of a management of people. It should be
considered along with education policies and systems which are crucial
to the development of human resources.
Keywords: Training and Development, goals, Role in achieving
Organizational Performance.
1. Introduction
Conventional `training' is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques
and knowledge, and much of this taking a positive progressive approach to this sort of
traditional training. Training and development guide is oriented chiefly around what's
214 Vinesh
good for people, rather than chiefly what's profitable for organizations. The reason for
this is that in terms of training, and development, what's good for people is good for
the organizations in which they work-what's good for people's development is good
for organizational performance, quality, customer satisfaction, effective management
and control, and therefore profits too. Organizations which approach training and
development from this stand point inevitably foster people who perform well and
progress, and importantly, stay around for long enough to become great at what they
do, and to help others become so. Training is a very commonly used word, it
traditionally `belongs' to the trainer or the organization, it should be about whole
person development-not just transferring skills, the traditional interpretation of training
at work. Being realistic, corporate attitudes and expectations about what `training, and
does cannot be changed overnight, and most organizations skill see `training' as being
limited to work skills, classrooms and power point presentations-However, when your
start to imagine and think and talk about progressive attitudes to developing people
beyond and traditional skills training. The objectivity of training and development and
its continued learning process has always been leverage with an organization and now
it has become rather an over arching trend of social needs, emphasizing that
organizations must inculcate learning culture as a social responsibility. It has been also
proved by many studies in the past that there are sound connections between various
training and development practices and different measures of organizational
performance.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Training and Development
As defined by Richard Beckhard, " Organization development" (OD) is a planned, top
down, organization-wide effort to increase the organisation is effectiveness and health.
OD is achieved through interventions in the organization's "Processes" using
behavioural science knowledge (i) According to warren Bennies, OD is a Complex
strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of organizations
so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges. Warner
Burke emphasizes that OD is not just "anything done to better an organization," It is a
particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular king of end result
OD involves organzational reflection, system improvements, Planning and self
analysis.
2.2. Training and Development and its Process
In order to ensure that our employees are equipped with the right kind of skills,
knowledge and abilities to perform their assigned tasks, training and development
plays its crucial role towards the growth and success of our business. By choosing the
right type of training, we ensure that our employees possess the right skills for our
business, and the same need to be continuously updated in the follow up of the best
and new HR practices. To meet current and future business demands, training and
development process has assumed its strategic role and in this regard few studies by
Role of Training & Development in an Organizational Development 215
Stavrou et al.'s (2004) and Apospori, Nikandrou, Brewster and Papalexandris's (2008),
have attained much importance as these highlight the T&D practices in cross-national
contexts. Apospori et al. (2008) had deduced that there is a considerable impact of
training on organizational performance. Differently from these studies, Cunha,
Morgado and Brewster (2003) were the only ones who could not determine the impact
of training on organizational performance, and suggested that another study on
analysis of this relationship was needed.
3. Importance of Training and Development in an Organizational
Development
Training and career development are very vital in any company or organization that
aims at progressing. This includes decision making, thinking creatively and managing
people. Training and development is so important because-
Help in addressing employee weaknesses
Improvement in worker performance
Consistency in duty performance
Ensuring worker satisfaction
Increased productivity
Improved quality of service and products
Reduced cost.
Reduction in supervision.
4. Objective of the Study T&D
The Major objective of the study is to analyze the role of training and development in
an organization development. The following are the specific objective of the study.
Training and development helps in optimizing the utilization of human
resources.
Training and development helps in increasing the productivity of the
employees.
Training and development helps in creating a beeter corporate image.
Training and development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,team
spirit, and inter-team collaborations.
Training and development helps in improving the health and safety of the
organization thus preventing obsolescence.
5. Approaches to T&D
5.1 Reactive Approach
The traditional approaches to training can be generally termed as reactionary, driven
by tactical delivery of technical skills in bricks and mortar, classrooms trainings and
where training is seen as an event oriented activity.
216 Vinesh
5.2. Proactive Approach
In the learning organization this approach aligns all learning activities with the
corporate business strategy, and its focus is on developing competencies.
5.3. Active Learning Approach
In this approach, trainees play a leading role in learning by exploring issues and
situational problems under the guidance of their facilitator. The trainees learn by
asking thought provoking questions, searching for answers, and interpreting various
observations made during the process. The active learning approach has its lasting
impact on learning since it helps in long-term retention and finding better solutions in
the challenging situations. In today's fast paced world, continuous learning is essential
to success. Individuals need to learn to succeed in life and at work. Companies need to
ensure their employees continue to learn, so they can keep up with increased job
demands and so the company can gain or maintain competitive advantage.
6. Discussion
6.1 Training and Development
(i) Identification of Training and Development Needs
Managers are expected to discuss training and development needs with each of their
staff at least annually as part of the Performance Review and Planning process. The
training and development needs of staff newly appointed to their positions should be
discussed within four weeks of their taking up the position, whether or not they are
new to the organization.
(ii) Internal Training and development Sessions
The Training and Development Unit organises training for staff on all campuses sites
and can set up specific sessions to meet identified needs for a department or section
group of departments, or occupational group. Computing Services also administers an
ongoing programme of courses for staff and other organization sections and
departments offer training sessions for staff as needs arise.
(iii) External Training and Development
Organization sponsored staff attending external courses from time to time the
organization may decide to send staff to specific external courses. Depending upon
the nature of the course and the time frames, nominations may be sought by the
Director Training and Development from appropriate managers. Representation will
be decided by the Nominations sub committee of the Training and development
Advisory Committee in accordance with the criteria outlined below. Fees (and
approved travel and accommodation where applicable) will generally be met from the
centralised training budget. Any other incidental costs are the responsibility of the
nominating department or section. Staff members supported from this budget are
generally expected to submit a brief report to the Director, TDU, and where
appropriate, may be expected to pass on the knowledge and skills gained to a wider
group, for example through seminars or workshops.
Role of Training & Development in an Organizational Development 217
6.2 Training and Development Its Role in Achieving Organization
Is investment in the area of training and development linked to the bottom line within
the business. Increasingly, high performing organizations today are recognising the
need to use best training and development practices to enhance their competitive
advantage. Training and development is an essential element of every business if the
value and potential of it's people is to be harnessed and grown. Many studies have
highlighted the clear links between well designed and strategic training and
development initiatives and the bottom line within the business. The image of an
industry and of individual employers is also influenced by the extent and quality of
staff training and development. Potential employees in such an open labour market will
assess the track record of prospective employers in this vital area. Career Progression
and development is an increasingly attractive or even basic requirement for many such
employees. In today's business climate where all industries are experiencing staff and
skills shortages, companies are faced with stiff internal and external competition for
quality employees. Each employer who invests seriously in the area of training and
development will reap the benefits of an enriched working environment with higher
levels of staff retention as well as increased productivity and performance.
6.3 Training and Development Goals in an organizational development
The types of training and development goals identified will depend on the personal
and organizational objectives identified through the strategic planning process and the
agreed appraisal procedure. In any event the goals shall, as a minimum standard, take
account of the following.
The mission
The Values
The strategic objectives of the college
Equal Opportunities Policy
Requirements for core competencies
Continuing personal and professional development
Requirements for professional and vocational qualification in further education
Requirements for professional, vocational and workplace updating
Requirements for organizational change
7. Hypothesis of the Training and Development in an Organizational
Development
It Improve productivity, effectiveness and efficiency of government service by
development and better utilization of talents, abilities and potential of
employees.
It Helps employees develop their knowledge, skills and abilities so that they
might become better qualified to perform the duties of their present jobs and
advance to more responsible positions.
218 Vinesh
Training and development provide for the development of managers and
supervisors capable of organizing and developing effective management
systems for the accomplishment of each State agency's goals and objectives.
Alleviate labor market shortages and reduce personnel turnover.
Prepared employees to deal more effectively with growing social, scientific and
economic problems faced by government by making use of advances in
professional and vocational knowledge and technology.
8. T&D Analysis and Findings
The analysis of the T&D research revealed that HR's role is to establish and
implement a high-level roadmap for strategic training and development. The strategic
positioning of training and development directly promotes organizational business
goals and objectives, and thereby enhancing organizational performance. The findings
emerged as a result of survey are discussed as under:
(1) Organizations must focus on continual learning and job trainings
(2) Line managers should be involved in TNA and policy decisions for training
(3) Good training must provides opportunities to learn and grow
(4) Employee Performance is augmented through competitive advantage
9. Conclusion
In India, many companies other than multi-nationals are not meeting the employee
demands with reference to training and development and ultimately the gaps found in
the required skills vis-a-vis attained skills have become so wide that inter-relationships
of training and performance are badly disturbed. There is still a big gap between the
knowledge and skills imparted and acquired in the institutions and its applications as
seen in the industrial environments. Due to this gap, companies now feel that there
should be a close liaison between such institutions and the industry so that employee
development programs are made more purpose oriented. There are training institutions
which offer customized as well as off-the-shelf programs based on their client's
business operations but yet, there is much to be improved. Therefore, training and
development cannot be disconnected from the business activities of the organizations;
on the contrary, this is the area that clearly illustrates positive relationships between
training activities and the organizational performance.
In particular it is recognised that an effective training and development policy can
be a crucial factor in addressing inequalities in employment in relation to race, gender
and disabilities. It is recommended that organization produce a training and
development plan, the aim of which shall be to empower all employees to carry out
their roles to the highest standards, and deliver high quality services to customar. In
these guidelines, training and development are broadly defined as those activities
aimed at raising the standards of employee practice and thus lifting the quality of the
employees, and customars learning and organisation experiences.

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